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reACT Valutazione dell’Impatto di Genere

reACT Valutazione dell’Impatto di Genere

La valutazione dell'impatto di genere è la stima dei diversi effetti (positivi, negativi o neutrali) di qualsiasi politica o attività attuata su punti specifici in termini di gender equality (parità dei sessi) di genere. In pratica, IO2 è una ricerca scientifica importante per:

  • migliorare la progettazione e la pianificazione delle politiche in esame, al fine di evitare situazioni negative
  • impatto sulla parità dei sessi rafforzata attraverso legislazioni e politiche meglio organizzate e trasformative;
  • misurare il grado di conoscenza dell'imprenditorialità delle donne al fine di identificarne i contenuti (soluzioni del training) che saranno sviluppati in IO3;
Uno degli obiettivi primari è quello di implementare una politica che garantisca la rimozione o attenuazione di effetti discriminatori. Oltre a evitare effetti negativi, un GIA (Gender Impact Assessment) può anche essere utilizzato in modo più trasformativo come strumento per definire gli obiettivi specifici in modo da creare una politica che promuova proattivamente la parità di genere.

reACT Executive Summary

Entrepreneurship is a human universal. All over the world, and throughout history, people have created businesses. Yet, although women make up more than 50 percent of the world population, they own and manage significantly fewer businesses than men.

The concept of entrepreneurship derives from the French word "entre" which means "between" and pendre meaning "to take" (Barringer & Ireland, 2016). The word was initially utilized to describe people who assumed the risk between buyers and sellers or who endeavoured to start a new venture (Tyszka, Ceislie, Domurat & Macko, 2011).

Around the globe, entrepreneurship is growing in popularity. About two-thirds of the world sees entrepreneurship as a good career choice and almost three-quarters of the world attribute a high status to successful entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs have become valuable to society because of the benefits starting a new business can offer to the business owner, the employees, the consumers, and the economy. Entrepreneurship starts and accelerates economic growth as it creates new jobs, stimulates competitiveness, and establishes new sources of productivity. It provides motivation for change and progress at the personal and national level. Entrepreneurs innovate new ways to develop and apply goods and services demanded by society. New businesses sprout up when there are market failures and by filling the gap, that business benefits the entire community.

When enterprises take on a more socially impactful purpose they can provide job opportunities to those who were at an employment disadvantage and provide aid to the more neglected needs of society. Socially-driven enterprises can even influence national social-policy changes. A nation that has a strong presence of entrepreneurship with few barriers to enter and exit reflects positively on that country's financial system.

Women entrepreneurship presents several distinctive characteristics that differentiate it from men entrepreneurship. But variations exist also across women entrepreneurs in various countries, and between women who are involved in entrepreneurship and those who are not. Overall, the explanation for the behavior of women entrepreneurs and its distinctiveness is complex and multifaceted. Evidence to date suggests that reasons contributing to explaining these differences include demographic and socio-economic variables, subjective perceptions, and cultural factors and institutions, and that such differences have significant implications at the macro-economic level. Studying female entrepreneurship allows researchers to ask questions that shed light on the linkages between entrepreneurship and wealth creation, employment choices and cognition, human capital accumulation and labor market structure, employment choice and family dynamics, business creation and peace, and many others. From a scientific point of view, the study of female entrepreneurship as a distinct area of inquiry informs us not only about women behavior, but also about entrepreneurial and human behaviors in general. All over the world, female entrepreneurship has become an important component of academic and policy conversations around entrepreneurship.

Women's economic empowerment is a cornerstone of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The 2016 Report of the United Nations Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Women's Economic Empowerment provides strong evidence that women are lagging behind men in terms of the number of female business owners, the size of women-owned businesses, and their access to economic resources.

The importance of female entrepreneurship for economic development is widely recognized. Numerous studies demonstrate the positive impact of female entrepreneurs on economic growth and development, as well as sustainable and durable peace (Cuberes and Teignier 2014; Fetsch, Jackson, and Wiens 2015; Lewis et al. 2014; Woetzel et al. 2015). Moreover, economies characterized by high levels of female entrepreneurial activity are more resilient to financial crises and experience economic slowdowns less frequently (Global Entrepreneurship Research Association 2017, 29). Despite different methodologies, these studies find significant socioeconomic benefits of female entrepreneurship. According to Woetzel et al. (2015), a "full-potential" scenario-in which women participate in the economy identically to men- would contribute as much as $28 trillion, or 26 percent, to annual global GDP by 2025.

Female entrepreneurs (https://ec.europa.eu/growth/smes/promoting-entrepreneurship/we-work-for/women_en): Even though there are more women than men in Europe, female entrepreneurs represent only a third of the self-employed in the EU. There are some additional factors (such as reconciling business and family) that make entrepreneurship a less attractive option for them than for men. Current situation of female entrepreneurs in the EU: women constitute 52% of the total European population but only 34.4% of the EU self-employed and 30% of start-up entrepreneurs female creativity and entrepreneurial potential are an under-exploited source of economic growth and jobs that should be further developed

Main Chellanges faced by female entrepreneurs: When establishing and running a business, women face challenges such as:

  • access to finance;
  • access to information;
  • training;
  • access to networks for business purposes;
  • reconciling business and family concerns.